Boundaries in the Subcontinent: Ties that Bind and Unravel

Naureen Bhullar

- May 31, 2021

I have been reading travelogues of Bishwanath Ghosh in the past few months and was keen to read his book “Gazing at Neighbours: Travels along the line that partitioned India”. This book follows the journey of the writer along the Radcliffe Line that split India into two (and later three) nations to see how it looks now from the perspective of people’s stories in the areas bordering India-Pakistan and India-Bangladesh.

Ghosh finds the border artificial as he views the same fields spreading between East and West Punjab and West Bengal and Bangladesh. Similar language and people who interact cordially across the fence when they go to tend their fields between 8 am and 5 pm even as they are told to keep the interactions to a minimum by the cautious border security forces in Punjab. 

The border is a lot more porous on the eastern side towards Bangladesh with family houses separated by the border drawn almost haphazardly by a foreign national who visited India briefly and altered it forever. However, the fact also remains that there wasn’t always bonhomie between the different religious groups before partition as they rarely ate or socialized together. Religion was the reason for the initial partition in 1947 but it could not keep the two parts of Pakistan together which were separated not just geographically but also linguistically. 

I find the Bengal Language Movement moving and inspiring in its insistence on having their own mother tongue, Bangla as the official language of the erstwhile East Pakistan when the western side of the country imposed Urdu as the official language of both dominions (East and West).  February 21 is the Language Movement Day or Shohid Dibosh (Martyrs’ Day) that is celebrated by Bengalis all over the world in remembrance of people who sacrificed their lives for their mother tongue. UNESCO also declared this day as the International Mother Language Day.

These are some examples of different categories of identity that define humans and impact their relationships. The common social phenomenon of similarity attraction effect (SAE) where birds of a feather flock together is often commonly observed where people show more cohesion and attraction towards people similar to them as familiarity leads to greater comfort whether it is based on religion or language. This cohesion or in-group attraction has its positives if it leads to greater solidarity and altruistic behaviour. 

The concern is when this in-group love is accompanied by out-group hate. As the partition of the Indian sub-continent revealed, there is nostalgia and tales of prior bonhomie after the macabre events but to no avail as the damage is already done. The blame is placed squarely on the feet of politicians and unscrupulous colonisers with little introspection by the everyday person on their own personal behaviour of active discrimination and avoidance of people of other religious groups. 

“Mere exposure effect” is a phenomenon described in social psychology. Exposure to people of different races or backgrounds can lead us to like the people and perhaps reduce prejudice and discrimination though there are caveats to this effect. If this exposure is not there as it was absent in the pre-partition days, prejudice against the ‘other’ may not go down. 

An old wrestler from Lahore who recalled how Hindus would not let Muslims drink water directly from their taps and even worse would attach a long pipe to the tap if at all they allowed a Muslim to drink the water.” 

An elderly Hindu man driven from Lahore by Muslim mobs during Partition blamed orthodox people for creating a social wall that kept the two communities apart. His mother, for example, would not allow Muslim women into the kitchen and had separate crockery for them.” 

Ghosh quotes Khushwant Singh, “The mixing of Hindus and Muslims was only superficial with no intimate friendships, except a certain amount of wining and dining that took place in the upper class.” (p. 48). Has this changed to some extent in the current times with social media connecting people across borders?

Last year, I joined a Facebook page called India Pakistan Heritage Club where people from the subcontinent (India and Pakistan primarily and Bangladesh to a lesser extent) share pictures related to the countries as well as their thoughts. These pictures range from the architecture, city skylines, cultural practices, and icons (often common across the border), foods, and sometimes political figures. People express nostalgia, longing, and love for places left behind. Some also actively seek out landmarks from childhood homes and long-lost friends and strangers help them find their ancestral properties. They plan and meet in places outside the subcontinent or in Kartarpur Sahib (right on the Indo-Pakistan border) which opened to Indian citizens in 2019. And these are not just people from the older age group who have memories as children or from their parents. There are several young individuals who express a longing to visit the other side and more importantly meet people from across the border. 

At times there are skirmishes online in this group with some people engaging in accusing the other side on topics like religion, terrorism, and Kashmir. But sooner or later, this is resolved with some of the trolls banned from this open group. They have a set of moderators who review all the posts. With all its flaws, it is one of my favourite social media pages as it connects me to our shared cultural heritage of the two Punjabs and other parts of the country. This same common thread unites us in foreign lands when we bump into each other and note the striking similarities amongst us. 

During Ghosh’s travels along the two borders, he also finds a mix of people like this heritage club’s Facebook page. Very few people living near the border area malign the neighbour they see (in Punjab) or even stroll across (West Bengal- Bangladesh). The mere exposure effect has probably led them to not see the next-door neighbour as the ‘enemy’ in any form. Jingoism is left to the outsider opportunists who may sway some individuals by scapegoating the other by attributing their problems to this neighbour. It is not only the foreign colonists who did this. One’s own country people have done it. 

In the book, a railway employee in the documentary says, “Common man wants only food, clothing, and shelter, he doesn’t want boundaries” (p. 49). Finding commonalities amongst people from the subcontinent makes us see people as ourselves with very little difference in the priorities. The differences to be celebrated and enjoyed and the commonalities to be cherished. But it is not always all rosy with people revving up old animosities. People in this book and the heritage club express the wish to have a union like the European Union (EU) with porous borders in future, even if it seems like a distant and a far-fetched dream. 

Stay updated with perspectives from leading experts

Scroll to Top
The Ultimate DEI SaaS Tool

DEI measurement and benchmarking

Inclusive recruitment strategy

Interactive courses

Diversity calendar

Inclusion game

Culture survey

Diversity, Equity, Inclusion

Unconscious bias awareness

LGBTQ inclusion

Psychological safety

Inclusive leadership

Workplace equity index

Gender advancement scale

DEI roadmap

DEI policy drafting


PoSH compliance

Sexual harassment awareness



Code of conduct

Compliance policy drafting

Bystander intervention

Respect at work

Legal insights

Simplified compliance information about anti-sexual harassment, anti-discrimination, PoSH, and more


Download whitepapers, industry DEI reports, and toolkits


Download whitepapers, industry DEI reports, and toolkits


Use Serein’s posters and videos to engage your employees


See how industry leaders partner with Serein to achieve their DEI goals


Meet our team of experts designing DEI solutions just for you

Nithya R

HR and Compliance Lead

Nithya drives operational excellence within the HR function. She ensures that Serein maintains the highest standards of HR practices and ethical conduct. Her role extends beyond traditional HR responsibilities as she also serves as an External Member of the Internal Complaints Committee (ICC) for Serein’s clients, specialising in preventing workplace harassment through the PoSH vertical.

Nithya has graduated in Commerce from the University of Lucknow and has rich experience in hiring and retaining the best talents in the industry with companies like BukuWarung and

Nandini Abraham

Statistical Analyst

Nandini conducts extensive industry-specific research on DEI trends in India, South East Asia, Europe, and the USA. Nandini is responsible for developing statistical models for DEI assessment on Serein’s DEI SaaS Tool. She designs measurement tools for DEI benchmarking, inclusion assessments, and employee experience surveys.

Nandini is passionate about creating engaging and impactful reports, toolkits, and playbooks for Serein’s customers.

Nandini holds a Bachelor’s degree in Economics, Mathematics & Statistics from St. Joseph’s College, Bangalore.

Sharanya Venkataraghavan

Safety and PoSH expert

Sharanya serves as a PoSH external member for 15+ companies in e-commerce, fintech, healthcare, SaaS, and more. She supports partner organisations on legal procedures and best practices to build safe work cultures.

She has been involved in the review of PoSH policies, labour law compliances, and research regarding the risk of secondary victimisation of complainants under the PoSH Act.

Sharanya graduated with BBA, LLB (Hons.) degree from Symbiosis Law School, Pune. She has experience in PoSH and employment law with notable law firms like Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas and Co., J. Sagar and Associates, among others.

Kirtika N

Safety and PoSH expert

Kirtika is an expert speaker and workshop facilitator on topics like sexual harassment awareness, bystander intervention, and anti-harassment redressal mechanisms. She has developed learning content for investigating committees on topics like witness cooperation in a workplace sexual harassment inquiry proceeding. 

Kirtika serves as a PoSH external member for 30+ companies in fintech, healthcare, business management, gaming, and more. She has 50+ hours of experience consulting on sexual harassment investigations at the workplace and supporting partner organisations on legal procedure and best practices.

She has a Master’s degree in Counseling Psychology from Montfort College, Bengaluru, and has experience working as a trainee counselor.

Rishab Prasad

DEI Specialist

Rishab is passionate about creating long-term partnerships with Serein’s customers. He is responsible for marketing, operations, customer onboarding, contract writing, and relationship building. Rishab uses his directing and filmmaking skills to design engaging content for Serein’s social media platforms.

Rishab holds a Bachelor’s degree in Economics with Honours from CHRIST University, Bangalore. He has directed more than nine short films on topics like stigmas of menstruation, widowhood, and adoption.

Bhavini Pant

Safety and PoSH expert

Bhavini serves as a PoSH external member for 30+ companies in industries like education, healthcare, IT, Pharma, and more. She has 70+ hours of experience consulting on sexual harassment investigations in the workplace and supporting partner organizations on the legal procedure and best practices for workplace safety.

Before Serein, Bhavini worked as an archivist at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, and as an editorial assistant for IIT Bombay’s PR and Alumni Associations department.

She has a Master’s degree in Education from Azim Premji University where she worked extensively with the management on anti-sexual harassment legal implementation. Her work involved the interpretation of the law in a university as a workplace and an educational institution for adults. 

Rhea D’Silva


Rhea is the aesthetic and creative eye behind Serein’s marketing and sales collateral. She manages website content and social media content calendar. She works closely with Serein’s content experts to design catchy invites, toolkits, and company culture reports.

Rhea creates animated content for Serein’s learning platform. She is focused on understanding the user’s need for engagement and learning to create impactful content. 

Rhea holds a Bachelor’s degree in Mass Media from St. Xavier’s University, Mumbai where she majored in advertising.

Thejaswini CA

LMS Platform Associate

Thejaswini is responsible for the operations and maintenance of Serein’s in-house e-learning platform. She assists customers to deliver learning content and assess employee engagement through Serein’s tracking system. 

Thejaswini is also engaged with finance and other operations to ensure Serein’s 500+ long-term partners are compliant with the Prevention of Sexual Harassment (PoSH) law.

Thejaswini holds a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Application from Field Marshal KM Cariappa College, Kodagu.

Arathi Kannan

Head of DEI: India, Global

Arathi leads the design and execution of DEI measurement tools for global partners. These include Serein’s Diversity Index, the scope of unconscious bias in recruitment and promotions, and the scope of unconscious bias in external messaging. 

She has also designed a standardized tool to review company policies and products through an inclusion lens. Arathi leads workshops on inclusion, unconscious bias, domestic violence, mental health, and well-being. 

Arathi is a published researcher with Master’s degrees in Applied Psychology and Criminology from Bond University, Australia. Her experience includes working with people from different backgrounds, including refugee groups.

Dr. Ruchika Sharma

Guest Consultant: Gender

Ruchika assists with research and facilitation of sessions on domestic violence, sexual harassment, employee well-being, and women’s leadership. She is a feature writer for Serein’s blogs where she writes about gender, women’s history, domestic violence, and sexual harassment awareness in the workplace.

Ruchika is a published author with books like ‘Concubinage, Race and Law in Early Colonial Bengal: Bequeathing Intimacy, Servicing the Empire’ published by Routledge, Taylor, and Francis publications. She has been teaching History at the University of Delhi for over a decade. She has a Ph.D. in History from the Centre for Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

Faakirah Junaid Rafiquee

Head of Legal

Faakirah is a legal professional and expert facilitator on topics like anti-sexual harassment, anti-harassment and anti-discrimination laws in India, South East Asia, Europe, and the USA. Faakirah has conducted 100+ training sessions on the prevention of sexual harassment for employees and internal committee members.

She has 150+ hours of experience consulting on sexual harassment investigations in the workplace. Her legal research at Serein includes policy analysis, human rights, women’s rights, and document drafting.

Faakirah is an experienced legal professional. She completed her Bachelor’s degree in law with a focus on women’s rights and policy analysis from the University of Kashmir. She holds a Master of Law degree specializing in alternative dispute resolution from O.P Jindal School of Law.

Aparna Pandurangan

Head of Operations

Aparna is leading the finance and operations at Serein. She has also been responsible for Serein’s online platform, customer management, and marketing.

She works closely with Serein’s 500+ long-term partners to ensure they are compliant with the Prevention of Sexual Harassment (PoSH) law. Aparna is a workshop facilitator on topics like the prevention of sexual harassment at the workplace in languages like Tamil, Telugu, and Kannada.

Aparna Pandurangan holds a degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Anna University, Chennai. 

Bianca D’Costa

Head of PoSH: India, Global

Bianca leads the compliance partnerships and workshops on anti-sexual harassment, anti-harassment and anti-discrimination laws in India, South East Asia, Europe, and the USA. She has 100+ hours of experience consulting on sexual harassment investigations in the workplace.

Bianca designs gamified learning modules for a unique and impactful learner experience on topics like gender inclusion, PwD inclusion, LGBTQIA+ inclusion, and regional inclusion among others. 

Before Serein, Bianca worked in hospitality for 5 years with Emirates Airlines. She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Political Science from St. Xavier’s University, Mumbai. She is presently pursuing a Master’s degree in Gender and Sexuality in Global Politics from SOAS University of London.

Chryslynn D’Costa

Co-founder and CPO |

Chryslynn leads the product development of Serein’s DEI SaaS tool. She designs learning content and strategic insights for companies to measure their DEI growth, and achieve bias-free recruitment and psychological safety.

Chryslynn is a regular columnist with publications like ‘LiveMint’ and ‘The Hindu’ where she writes about unconscious bias, prevention of sexual harassment, and company culture.

Before Serein, she was a Gandhi Fellow working in rural Rajasthan to address educational leadership and gender equity in government schools. She graduated from Azim Premji University in Bangalore with a Master’s in Education where she specialised in gender and sexuality education.

Dr. Ishani Roy

Founder and CEO

Ishani founded Serein to provide a data and research-based approach to solving DEI challenges at the workplace. She advises company leaders, startup founders, and venture capital firms on industry best practices to increase diversity and design a DEI roadmap.

Ishani is a recipient of the Cartier Women’s Initiative Award 2023 for the global impact of her work in the DEI space.

Before founding Serein, Ishani was a scientist at GE Research working in the Aerospace Lab. She holds a Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics from Brown University on developing mathematical models to solve Astrophysics problems. She did her Post-doctoral studies at the University of Oxford and St. Thomas Hospital in Biomathematics.

Subscribe to Serein research

Please fill in your contact details

Tell us which reports to send you